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  • Scott Alan Moffitt

In a previous post, I outlined various Tips for Learning a Dialect or Accent, and my first suggestion is that actors be proactive in their accent education, or—more simply—to “learn the dialect before you need it.”


While actors seeking the services of a dialect coach have typically selected a handful of dialects they wish to learn, there is often doubt surrounding what choices would best serve their career. When first working with a new client, I always have a conversation about their dialect and accent goals.


In this article I aim to demystify the process of selecting the best dialects and accents for an actor’s resume.



PARENT DIALECTS OF ENGLISH


Any English-speaking actor should first focus on mastering what I consider the two “parent” dialects of English: General American (GenAm) and British Received Pronunciation (RP). These two dialects are some of the most frequently requested by casting directors.


One reason for their popularity is they are intended to be region-less – someone with a GenAm dialect could be from Colorado, or Florida, or Washington. RP speakers might reside in London, or Yorkshire, or Edinburgh. They are also associated with a heightened sense of status, indicating education, power, or wealth – traits that may be crucial for the character.


More importantly, if you can master the sounds of these two dialects, you are well on your way to unlocking a multitude of other dialects and accents of English. While GenAm is naturally related to all dialects in the United States, RP contains features present in dozens of global English dialects, due to England’s colonialist history.



UTILIZE YOUR FRIENDS & FAMILY


Have you ever watched an actor portray a character that was supposed to hail from your hometown, but they failed to capture the nuance of the dialect? Maybe you couldn’t exactly express why, but you knew something was off. Your ear is naturally attuned to the sounds you grew up with, regardless of whether you know how to express those features.


Even if you do not naturally speak with a thick version of the dialect associated with your region (or perhaps your region does not have a strong accent to begin with), you may be able to convincingly imitate relatives or friends who do have a thick dialect. At the very least, you likely have some great primary resources in your immediate circle whom you can study. If you have a cousin from Chicago with a heavy accent, why wouldn’t you utilize that person as a resource and figure out their dialect?



FOREIGN LANGUAGE ACCENTS


If someone met you at an international airport, what language would they assume you spoke before you ever opened your mouth? Where would they think you were from, or were headed? The answer to these questions might help you decide on an accent to list on your resume.


If you do speak a language other than English, you should learn a regional accent or two associated with that language. If you need to speak French for an audition, there is a good chance your character may also have to speak English with a French accent at some point in the script.


Despite being proficient at a language other than English, multi-lingual actors are not always skilled at the accents associated with the language. They have more exposure to the sounds of a language, which makes the bar to proficiency seem higher. However, it’s that exact familiarity that should encourage you to learn the accent, not shy away from it. Your ear is already more attuned to the unique sounds of the language, and those different sounds will often be present in the accented English. In short, you have a leg up – why not use it?



TACTFULLY TYPECASTING


As an actor, you’ve likely asked yourself the all-important question: “What’s my type?” Can I play the “girl next door,” the “gruff cop,” the “goofy best friend?” Every person embodies countless combinations of character traits that translate well to screen.


When you think about the character types you can play, ask yourself if there are any dialects or accents associated with them. The soccer-mom may invoke a Midwestern accent. The tough-guy mafia type might benefit from a New York or Italian accent. The young ingenue might require a British dialect reminiscent of a fairytale.


Dealing with stereotypes like this can be problematic, but ‑good or bad‑ certain tropes are still relied on heavily in film and television. That’s why it is especially important that actors make ethical choices when choosing dialects and accents to study. Be respectful of other cultures when considering what you want to portray on screen, and the best way to do that is by putting in the work. Do not rely on an exaggerated caricature based on stereotypes to net you the role.




HERITAGE


Consider your ethnicity and familial history in your choices. Is your father from Britain and your mother from Ghana? You might want to learn one of many British dialects and a Ghanaian dialect. Are you ethnically Chinese? A Chinese accent of English might give you more casting opportunity.


That said, it is common to feel frustrated when asked to perform a dialect or accent based on your appearance for a role that may feel disrespectful of your culture, an occurrence that happens far too often in this line of work. However, excelling at such dialects or accents gives you the chance to do your heritage justice with an honest and authentic performance.


This should go without saying, but white actors likely do not need to preemptively learn a Jamaican accent. That is not to say that there are not white people in Jamaica, and I’m certain our industry will continue writing roles that rely on intentionally skewering certain dialects and accents for comedic effect . . . but I guarantee your time would be better spent learning a more appropriate dialect for your resume.



FOLLOW THE TRENDS


A good actor should always be researching what projects are currently casting, and doing so will help you spot trends in dialects and accents that are frequently needed.


There are many “old staples” that will always be popular. Fantasy projects frequently rely on British RP for the antagonists. Westerns will utilize a Southern accent. There’s a good chance any procedural cop drama is going to be set in New York and need a New York accent. Doing your homework in the form of watching lots of TV and films, and frequently reading casting breakdowns, will give you a good awareness of what dialects are consistently needed.


Still, it’s important to remember that trends can be fleeting – so be careful where you invest your time. I’m sure in the late 2000s with the popularity of Blood Diamond and District 9, many actors felt it imperative to learn a South African dialect, but you don’t see too many projects asking for those dialects today. At the time of writing this article, Mare of Easttown garnered lots of buzz (both good and bad) surrounding the Philadelphia accent spoken by its characters, but that does not mean there will be a spike in demand for it.


CHECK WITH YOUR REPS


If you have representation in the form of an agent or manager, ask them what their “wish list” of dialects is for you. They analyze casting breakdowns all day long, and they will undoubtedly have an opinion about what will improve your marketability. They should also be familiar with who on their roster is skilled in certain dialects, and they may have some surprising gaps that they would love to have you fill in.


Plus, by asking for your rep’s input, you will show them you are interested in dialect and accent work, and they may start to consider you for those breakdowns where they would not have previously.



Ultimately, I recommend every actor endeavors to master at least the following four dialects or accents on their resume to improve their casting opportunities:


· a standard dialect of English (GenAm or RP, if not both)

· a regional dialect (based on where you were raised)

· a foreign language accent (French, German, etc.)

· a type-based dialect (based on character type, your appearance, or heritage)



Still unsure what dialects and accents you should learn? Have lingering questions?

Schedule a free 15-minute consultation and we can chat about it!

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  • Scott Alan Moffitt

Actors frequently ask me for tips and tricks that will make learning a new dialect or accent easier for them. It can be difficult to give broad advice as no two dialects are the same and every actor is unique, but there are some things I find myself saying to my clients frequently. Here are a few general “best practices” for preparing a new dialect or accent.



LEARN THE DIALECT BEFORE YOU NEED IT


One of the biggest mistakes actors make is waiting until they get an audition that needs a dialect or accent before deciding to study it. An actor is expected to be proficient at any special skills listed on their resume; yet with dialect and accent work, the audition is often treated as a training ground by both the actor and agent. I can’t tell you the number of times I’ve been contacted by actors whose agent sent them an audition requiring an accent asking, “Can you do this?” to which the actor says, “I’ll give it a shot!” – only to need last-minute coaching once they realize it’s more difficult than they imagined.


While it’s always worth attempting the dialect in these cases (your agent doesn’t have to send the audition tape if it’s not up to their standards), why not take the time to prepare the dialect before you ever need it? Plus, if you consistently send in poor quality dialect work your agent will likely stop sending you those auditions.


Actors should instead identify the dialects and accents that would best serve their careers and endeavor to become proficient in them before adding them to their resume. Reliable staples such as General American (GenAm), British Received Pronunciation (RP), and a Southern American dialect will always prove valuable – but you should expand your choices based on your actor type. Agents and managers love working with proactive actors, and they will be impressed when you periodically reach out to inform them that you’ve added a new dialect or accent to your resume.


My clients who take this approach—without fail—report that their reps start to send them on more frequent auditions requiring accents, as they trust the actor and know they are willing to put in the work.



MEMORIZE WITH THE DIALECT


Always take the time to learn the dialect in tandem with your lines, and only commit to memorizing once you’re comfortable with the dialect. It is much more difficult to learn the lines and then try to apply the dialect afterwards, and that’s due in part to how memories are formed in the brain.


I’m no scientist, but as a trained actor I have some understanding of how memory works. When forming a new memory, in this case when learning lines, connections called “synapses” are formed between neurons in the brain. The act of learning lines creates strong synaptic connections through repetition; the stronger these synapses, the easier it is to recall a line. This is true of anything in life: the more you do something, the easier it becomes.


If an actor makes the choice to memorize their lines before applying the dialect, they are doubling the amount of brainpower involved – relearning the lines with the dialect after the fact requires the formation of an entirely new set of synaptic connections in the brain. Forgetting those previous way one said a line is not only difficult, but it can get in the actor’s way when trying to recall the new pronunciation of the line.



STUDY THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET


When applying a dialect to their text, actors often struggle to properly notate the sounds they are trying to capture. Many will inevitably rely on a “non-phonemic” system of rewriting words in the target dialect, essentially using alternative spelling to sound out the word. For instance, “Arkansas” may be written as ar-kuhn-saw.


This solution falls short in allowing the actor to be specific in their choices simply because English itself is inconsistent. The letter a is pronounced different in the words cat, father, arena, angel, Mary, and orange – therefore how could we rely on this letter to clue us in on the sound we’re targeting?


This is where the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) shines. The IPA is a writing system devised to capture the sounds of all languages accurately and objectively. In the IPA, every symbol has only a single sound – for instance, [ɑ] is the back rounded vowel used in the word “saw” . . . in a GenAm dialect, at least. In an RP dialect, that vowel typically experiences lip rounding, becoming [ɒ].


It can be tricky to learn at first, but mastery of the IPA is the single most powerful tool available to actors for learning a new dialect. Click here to watch a short video where I demonstrate the power of the IPA.



USE THE RIGHT RESOURCES


The first step when learning a new dialect or accent is to find good resources to base your character’s voice on. Since no two people sound exactly alike, I recommend listening to audio or video resources of at least three different people – this will give your own voice a unique blend of sounds that are based in real-world choices.


When compiling these resources, it’s critical that you focus on “primary” examples, where people are speaking extemporaneously in their natural dialect. These native speakers, as opposed to actors, will offer the most accurate representation of the target dialect. “Secondary” resources, or actors performing in their native dialect, can also be useful – but the added layer of performance may alter the natural rhythms and sounds of their voice. “Tertiary” resources, or actors performing in a dialect or accent that is not native to them, should be avoided. No matter how good the actor may be, we have such a wealth of resources available online that actors shouldn’t need to resort to non-native speakers as a basis.


We are fortunate to live in a time when primary sources are readily available to us – imagine how difficult it was for actors to accomplish this pre-internet! You can find videos on YouTube, listen to local radio stations or podcasts, browse the International Dialects of English Archive, the Speech Accent Archive, or reference my own ever-growing compendium of Dialect and Accent resources.



FIND THE MUSIC


Aside from reproducing the one-to-one sound changes of a given dialect, it’s important to capture the dialect’s music, or “prosody”. This involves things like the rhythm, stress, pitch, tone, and resonance. These choices can be difficult, as any given dialect is going to have a near infinite combination of these prosodic elements. If you generalize the dialect by using only one pattern of speech, your performance will become repetitive and sound like a bad impression – I refer to this as the “Swedish Chef” effect, after the repetitive vocal qualities of the beloved Muppets character.


Actors can combat this by “humming” the words of their example speakers back at them while listening, almost as if you were humming along to a song on the radio. Ask yourself the following questions: Do they stress words more with pitch, volume, or duration? Does their inflection rise or fall at the end of sentences? Are the words in their sentences more staccato (detached and repetitive) or legato (connected)? Where in their vocal tract is their resonance centered?


These are just a few things to pay attention to, and each of your example resources will have subtle differences between them. Unless you’re portraying a real person, your character’s voice should be unique, so don’t be afraid to attempt a combination of the features you hear when first learning a dialect.



FIND A TRIGGER SENTENCE & THINKING SOUND


When you’re practicing a dialect, you may occasionally hear yourself say a line and think, “Wow, that sounded really good!” While your ear training may or may not be developed enough to accurately critique yourself, don’t ignore those positive thoughts. These standout lines are potential “trigger sentences”, or lines that you speak exceptionally well to the point you almost feel you could no longer say them without the dialect.


These sentences can be incredibly useful to “trigger”, or turn on, the dialect before you perform. Think of it as a way of resetting your voice and finding a baseline in the dialect. Trigger sentences can also be reused for years to come. As an actor, I do my best to find an appropriate trigger sentence for each dialect I have on my resume . . . some I’ve been using for over a decade!


In a similar vein, you may consider finding a new “thinking sound” for the dialect. In a GenAm dialect, most people think with an “uh” or “um”, a flat, neutral vowel sound which is in the very center of the mouth. Finding a different placement for your character’s thinking sound can shift your vocal resonance toward that of the target dialect. For instance, an RP dialect may have a thinking sound closer to “eh”, while a Boston speaker could lean toward “ah”. You will hear a variety of different thinking sounds when listening to your example resources – use whatever sound is most beneficial to you and the character.



WORK WITH A DIALECT COACH


Twenty years ago, it was difficult for everyday working actors to hire a dialect coach. It was cost-prohibitive, there weren’t as many coaches, and it wasn’t possible to work virtually. Actors would be lucky to work with a dialect coach if one was hired on a project they booked.


Nowadays actors have much greater access to coaches, to the point that agents and managers often expect their clients to seek coaching on larger auditions and nearly every production will have a dialect coach on set if any of the characters have an accent. Plus, even if an actor has a fairly good natural ear for a dialect, it is difficult to be objective about the sound of one’s own voice.


There are a variety of approaches to teaching dialects out there, so chances are there’s a coach that’s right for you. My goal as a dialect coach is to give actors the tools to be independent when learning a new dialect or accent, to help actors make strong, specific, and repeatable choices, and the ability to maintain the dialect when receiving direction.



Schedule a free 15-minute consultation to learn more about my Dialect & Accent Coaching services.

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As a Dialect & Accent Coach, I frequently assist clients in achieving a more General American (GenAm) dialect, as it is often perceived as a region-less, inoffensive, and articulate version of English. Clients who seek this service typically do not speak English as a first language, and their fluency will vary. Occasionally I’ll work with native English speakers with a thick regional dialect, such as Southern American, who desire a GenAm dialect for the same reasons as a non-native English speaker. There are several factors which may cause someone to seek this service. One is the impression that their accented English is holding them back from advancing in their desired career. Another, and it is related to the first, is a deeply rooted anxiety related to the sound of their own voice.


Often this anxiety is triggered by a well-meaning comment made by someone in their past: “Your accent is holding you back.” Or, more often, the repetitive question that every English as a Second Language (ESL) speaker is subject to: “Oh you have an accent, where are you from?” These may seem like harmless questions – but nearly every one of my ESL clients have expressed at one point or another how hurtful they can be. We all want to feel like we belong, but these questions have an “othering” effect. My clients typically view it as a personal milestone when the frequency of these questions subside.


When seeking the services of a Dialect Coach to deal with these issues, one may be forced to use an industry standard search term: Accent Reduction. I find this phrase problematic as the word “reduction” is inherently negative, but the phrase is also inaccurate. An accent is not a thing which can be reduced. A person can change how they speak, but the resulting voice is no more a reduction than a butterfly is a reduction of a caterpillar. The phrase also implies that the coach is inherently trying to reduce one’s sense of identity to match America’s societal norms, like trying to fit a square peg in a round hole.


I also view the problem as related to the systemic racism that plagues the United States, and indeed many English-speaking countries. If an employer suggests an employee’s accent is “holding them back”, that implies that their clientele would have negative association with the employee’s background, perhaps making assumptions about their level of education, heritage, or even moral compass. This concern is not unfounded – our inherent biases cause us to make snap judgements about people based on their voice. But why is this the ESL speaker’s problem? Why is it not instead the responsibility of the employer, or the client, to shift their perspective? Whether by conscious choice or not, we often make the snap judgement that someone’s first language being anything other than English is a weakness. Rather, it is a strength – only about 20% of Americans are bilingual.


Let me be clear, I am not specifically referring to individuals who do not speak fluent English. Nor does this specifically relate to ESL actors who may be trying to play a native English speaker, in which a perfect accent would arguably be necessary to uphold the artistic integrity of the project. Rather, I am referring to those accented English speakers who do have a mastery of the language, which again makes up a majority of those who tend to seek out these services.


As a Dialect coach, one small way that I can combat this attitude is by replacing the term Accent Reduction in my practice with the term American Accent Acquisition. I want my clients to understand that they are acquiring a new skill, not reducing some part of themselves. While the chances that one born outside the U.S. is going to adopt a perfect GenAm dialect is low, I can give clients the tools to get 95% of the way there. At the end of the day, I want individuals I work with to know that my goal is to build their confidence, reduce the anxiety associated with their speaking voice, and help them view their voice as an asset rather than a liability.


Check out the F.A.Q. for more information on my American Accent Acquisition services.

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